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Stone Carving in Tamil Nadu

Stone Carving has been an ancient craft in Kanyakumari district due to the patronage of religious architecture and sculpture by the ruling dynasties of South India.

The skills of carving idols in granite are unique in Tamil Nadu   as the carving tradition is still true to translating the scared scriptures.
In Kanyakumari, the 133 ft tall statue of Thiruvalluvar, the saint poet was sculpted by Dr. V. Ganapati Sthapati from Mahabalipuram.

Black and Red granite are locally available and are used in carving tombstones, letters and gravestones, idols of deities and grinding stones.
Type of Granite used are Karuppu Kal (black), Vellai Kal (white), Pacchai Kal (green).

Stone carving of idols is closer to the Kerala style since the region was once part of the Travancore state and patronage was and still is , primarily from Kerala temples. The idols for worship are carved in adherence to the specifications in ancient scriptures. Granite stone is carved into idols following the rules of the Shilpa Shastra. Granite is referred to and is believed to be the ‘uyirottamkal (a living stone)’, hence its traditional value is echoed in the Pallava sculptures in the rock-cut caves and monoliths that surround these guilds.

The stone is first leveled. The figure is drawn with a mixture of red oxide and water by the master craftsman, before carving.

The stone idol is polished by rubbing with sandpaper or carborundum stone. Coconut or Castor Oil is applied on the idol,giving it the characteristic black color and a smoother surface. The idol is consecrated with ‘opening of the eye’ or carving the expresssion in the eyes that is done after the initial puja (worship).

Soapstone (Maavu Kal) is also used to carve small figures. The stones are polished to retain their natural color. Soapstone sculpture was developed as a training scheme of the government and was headed by the craftsmen who relocated from Modayur in North Arcot district of Tamil Nadu. This stone is obtained from quarries in Tiruvannamalai and Salem district of Tamil Nadu. Soapstone is a softer material than Granite and facilitates easy carving.
As the idols are of lower value, the process consists of rough cutting the stone to required size without markings or drawing. The sculpture is then carved spontaneously without measurements. Creative forms have been introduced by the design influence from the international community of Auroville in Tamil Nadu.


Granite Stone sculpture were mainly used for carving the idols for temples. However, in recent times they are fashioned as decorative items for the tourist market as well.

Most of the craftsmen owing a pattarai (workshop), in Mahabalipuram have settled here after completing their training from Government college of Traditional Architecture and Sculpture in Mahabalipuram, a town that has over 500 caves. They have a flourishing trade in sculpture due to a large influx of tourists that has led to the availability of skilled craftsmen in this region.

The famous Five Rathas of Mahabalipuram

I visited Mahabalipuram and Pondicherry in early December and watching the artisans working on these stone was a beauty to witness.

Credits: Handmade in India



3 thoughts on “Stone Carving in Tamil Nadu

  1. Dear Anitmaji!
    My name is Thomas. I went to Mahabalipuram in March. There I have made friends with a young sculptor. He has a little shop, makes his artworks there and tries to sell to the tourists. Very beautiful, just like you describe in your article. In a spontaneous act I bought about 15 kg of his artwork in order to support him – like I said I like him. We have spent some days together. He showed me around and took me to a puja of a friend, etc. I thought I try to sell the sculptures back in Germany. Today I have this Etsy shop: https://www.etsy.com/de/shop/VelaStoneArts

    Yesterday some man confronted me with the fact of child labour in Indian stone quarries. I never thought about this before. Do you know under which conditions the stones used for tourist sculptures are gained? Is the source and the working conditions transparent for the craftsmen there? Do you think they have a chance to buy probably more expensive stones if then these were not produced by children?

    Thanks for your assessment.
    With best regards!

  2. Craftsmen community is the community of creative and innovative people who incessantly craft the imaginations of the artistic mind upon woods, stones, clothes, and other materials. A nice article, showcasing the workshops of craftsmen society. Thanks for sharing. One can also check ours as well.
    handicraft collections

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